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Principles of HVAC design and major components of the air conditioning system

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Principles of HVAC design and major components of the air conditioning system

Whether you want to upgrade an existing system or you are looking for a new one, a good understanding of the principles of heating and air conditioning, designs and typical models, will allow you to make good decisions when the time comes.

HVAC means heating, ventilation and air conditioning (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning)

This is the system that regulates the temperature inside a building and, in some systems, the air quality as well. The HVAC design principles include the basic system operating theory and the factors that determine the size and capacity of the equipment installed in the system.

The basic principles of designing, operating and determining the capacity requirements of an HVAC

When updating a current air conditioning system or preparing to build a new one in a residential or commercial building, one of the most important design considerations is the correct calculation of the heating and cooling loads that the system will support. These calculations are indispensable to anyone who is looking for a system and are extremely important to make the right decisions regarding the ideal design for your room, house or building.

The components of an HVAC system

There are two main components of an air conditioning system. These two parts are the air treatment, heating and cooling system and the heat exchanger. In most cases, the heat source is a certain type of oven. In an air conditioning system, the cooling system consists of a number of unique subcomponents, such as evaporators and condensers, compressors, piping, valves, etc. For example, the air conditioning part of a system requires the refrigerant to cool the air inside the building, so in a system there will also be refrigerants.

The refrigerating agents

The most air conditioners operate on the principle of compression and expansion of gases. This gas is known in the air conditioning and refrigeration systems field as a refrigerant. When this refrigerant is compressed, it gets cold. This refrigerant is then sprayed into the heat exchanger by means of a kind of expansion valve. There have been four types of primary refrigerants used in air conditioners over the years. The primary refrigerant was the R-12, although this is easily replaced by the R-34a.

Installing the air conditioning system

An HVAC system with components that are installed incorrectly or installed in ways that are disadvantageous is a badly designed one. Maximizing the airflow across the heat exchanger unit ensures a maximum heat transfer and maximum system efficiency. An air conditioning system that is inadequately installed will also have a diminished efficiency. Placing the thermostat too close to an air hole or air return, for example, will also cause a drop in efficiency.


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