What you should know about pipelines
Water pipeline routes from the interior of a building depend on the configuration of the construction, on the position of the sanitary furniture. The length of the pipelines must be as small as possible and the direction parallel to the walls or to the beams and pillars of the building and follow the shortest way to the consumption points which should be supplied with water.
There are not allowed the pipelines with oblique routes from the walls or ceiling, or climbing on the mid walls. Only pipes that descend from sanitary objects or devices can be mounted away from corners.
On determining the exact route of the pipeline there must be accounted on the other kinds of installations that are following to be assembled, so all installations can be arranged in the most aesthetic and judiciously way.
Therefore it is recommended in this aspect to work with plumbers of other specialties, eliminating the old custom whereby the plumber whom starts first the execution chooses the most favorable place.
The pipes can be installed visible or buried (hidden) under the plaster of the walls or under the floor.
To assemble the water pipes under the plaster walls, during the execution of building the walls, ditches (grooves) should be left into the walls, which can serve also for other pipes. These ditches, as the penetrations in walls and floors for passage pipes, are provided in the construction blueprint, especially for the vertical columns. The grooves can be visited, if they are covered with removable boards, or without visitation, masked with plaster on RABIT net.
If they forgot to leave them during the execution of construction, the ditches and penetrations can be executed subsequently by the team of plumbers, but this leads to an increase in the price of the construction cost and also to damage to the construction, that requires expensive repairs and that can sometimes lead to a decrease in the resistance of those elements of the construction.
It is recommended that the grooves made in the wall for pipes do not pass behind the sanitary objects. In the same groove in the wall can be fitted together the cold water pipe, hot water pipe, circulation pipe and sewer pipe. For execution of the ditches the walls must have a minimum certain thickness. When the wall thickness is smaller and the pipes still have to be buried, they are mounted near the wall and they are covered with RABIT or with plasterboard.
Besides the apparent pipes, the buried pipes under plaster have the advantage that they do not damage the aesthetic appearance of the rooms and they remove the deposits of dust that form on the surface pipes, but their cost is higher. The apparent pipes allow easy control, and if a defect appears, its remedy is not related to costs of plastering and painting repairs.
When crossing through walls or floors, the pipes are assembled with protection tubes, enabling the freedom of their expansion. The free space between the pipe and the protection tube is filled with an insulating soft material. So, in the case of the steel pipes, the crossing is achieved through a protective tube with a metal sheet collar soldered on it for waterproof insulation, fixed with mortar on the floor before pouring of the concrete or assembling of sandstone and execution of waterproof insulation.
In the case of PVC pipes, they are put also in a larger diameter tube for protection, and the space between the protection tube and the pipe is filled with mineral wool, cardboard, soft plastic material. Without these measures, the pipeline crossings turn into fixed points, unexpected, especially in case of pipes made of PVC or that ones for the hot water is very harmful.
In the case of the apparent installation of pipes, their assembling is done before plastering the walls, but it will also take into account the thickness of the plaster, so after plastering, pipes and including their insulation, should be placed at a distance of 3 cm from the finished surface of the wall. In the case of buried assembling, pipes and respectively their insulation will be removed from the wall surface at least 1cm.
Inside of industrial buildings where water pipes are placed under floor, the installation is not allowed to be placed directly in the ground, only in special channels executed under the floor. These channels can be with visitation or without visitation. Both kinds of tunnels are built of bricks or concrete floor before executing the floor and usually they are covered with prefabricated concrete tiles; over them is executed the same floor as in rest of the room.
Vital pipes, for example those which should ensure the uninterrupted supply with water of some technological processes, are assembled in channels with visitation or channels covered with striated steel sheet. These channels allow the possibility of controlling the pipelines along their entire route and allow an easy maintenance of the pipes.
Channels under the floor are executed generally parallel to the walls or with a perpendicular direction to the walls.
The pipes which are mounted below the cellar level or under the floor will be placed at a maximum depth of 30cm below them.
The installation of the internal network of water supply will start with the main distribution pipe, and continue with columns and end with the contact pipelines to the consumption points.
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